Synthesis of Porous Materials and Their Microstructural Control through Ice Templating


  • Wiwut Tanthapanichakoon Tokyo Institute of Technology
  • Hajime Tamon Kyoto University
  • Kyuya Nakagawa University of Hyogo
  • Tawatchai Charinpanitkul Chulalongkorn University



Porous material, ice templating, microhoneycomb, microfiber, CNT.


Ice-templating is a simple, practical kind of template synthesis which consists of sol-gel polycondensation, unidirectional freezing of hydrosols or hydrogels, and pore-preserving drying method, such as freeze drying, thereby resulting in desirable porous materials. The unidirectional freezing may be achieved by either immersion freezing or contact freezing. Freeze-dried materials contain porous microstructures that are replicas of the ice crystals formed during the unidirectional freezing process. Two similar but slightly different applications of ice-templating will be investigated here. Fabrication of macroporous foam materials by unidirectional freezing of an aqueous suspension of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) dispersed by chitosan is a concrete example of functionalization of an electroconductive foam, which is a composite material made from a polymer and CNTs. As expected, their electroconductive properties can be controlled by the fabrication method and condition. Additional examples of porous materials synthesized by ice-templating are porous microfibers and microhoneycombs of silica, titania, silica-alumina, titania-silica, and even carbon. In the preparation, the morphology and porous structure can be controlled by the freezing conditions and synthesis conditions of the corresponding hydrogels, respectively.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Wiwut Tanthapanichakoon

Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550, Japan

Hajime Tamon

Department of Chemical Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto 615-8510, Japan

Kyuya Nakagawa

Research Center for Nano-Micro Structure Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280, Japan

Tawatchai Charinpanitkul

Center of Excellence in Particle Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand


Published In
Vol 17 No 3, Apr 3, 2013
How to Cite
W. Tanthapanichakoon, H. Tamon, K. Nakagawa, and T. Charinpanitkul, “Synthesis of Porous Materials and Their Microstructural Control through Ice Templating”, Eng. J., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 1-8, Apr. 2013.

Most read articles by the same author(s)