Sustainability of Concrete as A Civil Engineering Material
Keywords:sustainability, cement, greenhouse gas, concrete, infrastructure, recycled
With increasing concern about the environment, energy consumption, climate change, and depletion of natural resources, the importance of sustainability has become mainstream among engineering and scientific communities. Concrete infrastructure is superbly durable and comes with a myriad of benefits. Yet, the production of concrete is energy intensive and represents a substantial portion of air pollution. Largely due to cement manufacturing, concrete represents 7% of greenhouse gas emissions globally and 1% in the United States. Focusing on sector-specific emissions in the United States., this paper outlines the environmental concerns of concrete production and discusses the forefront of research in reducing these effects including innovations in cement manufacturing, alternative clinker technologies, and carbon capture use and storage. Also discussed are various approaches and efforts in concrete recycling and incorporation of industrial wastes and supplementary cementitious materials into concrete. Finally, this study reviews the role of civil engineering design at various scales in the sustainability of concrete infrastructure.
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